The National Headache Foundation has you covered with this headache FAQ.
What is migraine? What causes it, and how can I treat it?
Generally, migraine begins as a dull ache and then develops into a constant throbbing and pulsating pain that you may feel at the temples, as well as the front or back of one or both sides of the head. The pain is usually accompanied by a combination of nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and noise. Some people (about 15% of migraine sufferers) experience an aura before an attack. The cause of migraine is believed to be chemical reactions in the brain. Treatment for migraine may include over-the-counter or prescription medications, as well as self-help techniques such as relaxation training and biofeedback.
What is an aura?
About 15-20% of people with migraine get an “aura,” which is a manifestation of neurological symptoms that occurs before a migraine headache. You may see wavy or jagged lines, dots, or flashing lights; or you might experience tunnel vision or blind spots in one or both eyes. The aura can include visual or auditory hallucinations and disruptions in smell (such as strange odors), taste, or touch. Other symptoms include numbness, a “pins and needles” sensation, or difficulty in recalling or speaking the correct word. These neurological events may last as long as sixty minutes and will fade as the headache begins.
What is a trigger?
Certain physical or environmental factors, such as foods, hormonal changes, weather, and stress, can lead to or “trigger” a migraine. However, it’s important to remember that triggers are different for everyone. That’s why, to help prevent migraine attacks, you need to figure out which triggers affect you and which ones don’t. Keeping a headache diary is an effective way to track triggers, and it will help you talk to your healthcare professional about your condition.
Does weather affect migraines?
Bright sunshine, hot, humid conditions, and drastic changes in barometric pressure may lead to, or “trigger,” a migraine attack in some migraineurs. However, studies have shown that weather does not act as a trigger for everyone who has migraine.
What is the link between migraine and hormones?
Hormones initiate and regulate many of your body’s functions, keeping your body in balance within a constantly changing environment. When the levels of hormones in your body are unbalanced – during menstruation, pregnancy, or menopause – it can lead to a migraine attack. In fact, about three quarters of all women with migraine report that their attacks are related to the menstrual cycle.
Is there an increased risk of stroke for migraine sufferers?
While the severity of a migraine attack often causes patients to fear they are having a stroke, the likelihood of a migraine attack causing a stroke is very remote. That is not to say that migraine sufferers cannot have a stroke associated with their migraines. In persons under age 40, the most common associated factor for stroke is migraine headache. However, over the course of a person’s normal life span, the occurrence of migraine headache may actually be associated with a reduced risk of dying from cerebrovascular disease due to stroke.
What are acute medications for migraine?
Acute medications – sometimes referred to as acute abortive medications – are used to treat the pain of the headache after it has started. Examples of acute abortive medications include over-the-counter medications, NSAIDs, ergots, and triptans.
What are the triptans?
Triptans are the newest class of abortive medications specifically targeted to treat migraine. In addition to being vasoconstrictors, they moderate some chemical reactions in the brain. The triptans work on receptors in your brain, helping to restore the balance of a neurotransmitter called serotonin. Changing levels of serotonin are thought to be a main cause of migraine.
Are over-the-counter medications for migraine effective?
Over-the-counter, or “OTC,” medications may be effective in relieving mild to moderate pain and associated symptoms of migraine. However, you should see your doctor before beginning any treatment regimen for migraine.
What are preventive medications for migraine?
Preventive medications for migraine – sometimes referred to as “prophylactic” treatments – are used to reduce the frequency, severity, and length of migraine attacks. Most preventive migraine medications were initially developed to treat other diseases, such as seizures, depression, or hypertension. Examples of preventive medications include antiepileptic medications, antidepressants, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).
Why are anticonvulsants used to treat migraine?
Most preventive migraine medications were initially developed to treat other diseases, such as seizures, depression, or hypertension. During the past few years, there has been an increased interest in antiepileptic drugs (sometimes referred to as “anticonvulsants”) for the prevention of migraine, as both epilepsy and migraine may be caused by similar reactions in the brain.
Why are antidepressants used to treat migraine?
Most preventive migraine medications were initially developed to treat other diseases, such as seizures, depression, or hypertension. Antidepressants are typically used to treat people with depression, although they may reduce migraine frequency by regulating chemical levels in the brain.
What alternative therapies are used to treat migraine?
The term “alternative therapies” is often used to describe treatments considered outside the scope of conventional Western medicine. Examples of alternative therapy include acupuncture, acupressure, and yoga. Another common alternative treatment is herbal therapy, as some herbs are believed to relieve headache pain. Always discuss alternative therapies with your doctor before proceeding.
What is a tension-type headache? What causes it, and how can I treat it?
Tension-type headaches occur randomly and are often the result of temporary stress, anxiety, fatigue, or anger. Symptoms include soreness in your temples, a tightening band-like sensation around your head (a “vice-like” ache), a pulling feeling, pressure sensations, and contracting head and neck muscles. The headache begins in your forehead, temples, or the back of your head and neck. Treatment for tension-type headache may include over-the-counter or prescription medications, as well as self-help techniques such as relaxation training and biofeedback.
What is a cluster headache? What causes it, and how can I treat it?
Cluster headache gets its name because the attacks come in groups. The pain arrives with little, if any, warning and is usually on one side of the head. A tearing or bloodshot eye and a runny nose on the side of the headache may also accompany the pain. Cluster headache, believed to be caused by chemical reactions in the brain, has been described as the most severe and intense of any headache type. Treatment for cluster headache includes prescription medication and oxygen.
What is a sinus headache? What causes it, and how can I treat it?
When a sinus becomes inflamed, usually as the result of an allergic reaction, a tumor, or an infection, the inflammation will cause a localized pain. If your headache is truly caused by a sinus blockage, such as an infection, you will probably have a fever. An x-ray will confirm a sinus blockage. Your physician’s treatment might include antibiotics for the infection, as well as antihistamines or decongestants.
What is a rebound headache? What causes it, and how can I treat it?
A pattern of taking acute headache medications too often (more than two days per week) or in excessive amounts (more than the label or a doctor advises) can lead to a condition known as “rebound headache.” With rebound headache, your medications not only stop relieving pain, they actually begin to cause headaches. Doctors treat rebound headache by tapering the medication that is being overused, sometimes by gradually substituting a different type of treatment or medication. Stopping may be a challenge, but regularly overusing a medication increases the potential for serious side effects. Consult a physician if you regularly use headache medications more than two days per week or more than the label advises.
What is biofeedback?
Biofeedback is a self-help treatment that utilizes special equipment to monitor your body’s involuntary physical responses such as breathing, pulse, heart rate, temperature, muscle tension, and brain activity. Biofeedback helps you refine and perfect your relaxation exercises by learning to control the physical responses that are related to stress. An important benefit to learning biofeedback is that, once the technique has been mastered, you don’t need the equipment any more.
Are headaches hereditary?
According to estimates, approximately 29.5 million people in the United States suffer from migraine. Four out of five (80 percent) of them report a family history of migraine, but scientists are not sure if this is genetic or a family predisposition. Despite the uncertainty, a child has a 50% chance of having migraine if one parent suffers and a 75% chance if both parents suffer.
Can children get headaches?
By the time they reach high school, most young people have experienced some type of headache. However, once your child’s physician discovers the cause and type of the headache, many safe and effective approaches or medications can prevent a headache from occurring or stop it after it has attacked.
Why do I only have headaches on the weekend?
A change in your sleep pattern — too much or too little — may instigate a headache. It is best to get the same amount of sleep each night and get up the same time each day, even on the weekend.
How many types of headache are there?
According to the National Headache Foundation, headaches are divided into two basic categories: primary/benign (tension-type, migraine, cluster) and secondary (organically caused). All headaches fall into one of these two categories depending on their causes and symptoms.
Is it possible for one person to have several types of headaches?
It’s not uncommon for an individual to suffer from more than one type of headache. According to Dr. Seymour Diamond, Executive Chairman of the National Headache Foundation, people with mixed headache problems — such as migraine with tension-type headache — are not unusual.
What type of doctor should I see to diagnose and treat my headache?
When seeking treatment for your headache, start with your primary care physician. Discuss his or her experience and approach to headaches, including methods of classification, diagnosis, and treatment. Your doctor may decide to recommend you to a headache specialist, depending upon your symptoms or other physical conditions (diabetes, allergies, etc.) that require a more comprehensive and inclusive approach to your headache. To find headache specialist in your state, use our Physician Finder.
How can I join the National Headache Foundation?
There are three easy ways to join the National Headache Foundation:
- Call 1-888-NHF-5552 with your order and credit card information.
- Fax a completed form—Individual Membership, Physician Membership, or Allied Healthcare Professional Membership—with credit card information to: (312) 640-9049.
- Mail this completed form—Individual Membership, Physician Membership, or Allied Healthcare Professional Membership—with your payment (check, money order or credit card information) to the address below.
Please make checks/money orders payable to:
National Headache Foundation
820 N. Orleans, Suite 411
Chicago, Illinois 60610
What’s included in my membership?
Membership in the National Headache Foundation entitles you to benefits including: receiving our quarterly magazine Head Wise 40-page issue of this brand new quarterly publishe is filled with up-to-date information on the latest developements in headache treatment, breaking news about newly-approved drugs, in-depth features on the issues migraine and headache sufferers facem and answers to your questions by the nation’s leading headache experts. You will also receive a monthly e-newsletter, containing up-to-the minute information on new drug approvals and the latest in headache research. Each monthly issue will arrive in your e-mail in-box. You will receive announcements of educational programs, be able to access NHF published material and information regarding the headache education and NHF Chat Room as well as have toll-free access to the NHF office.
How much is my membership?
Annual membership fees are $20 to receive Head Wise Magazine.